ASSOCIATION OF PARLIAMENTARY LIBRARIANS

OF ASIA AND THE PACIFIC (APLAP)

EIGHTH BIENNIAL CONFERENCE

NEW DELHI, INDIA

18-22 JANUARY 2005

 

 

SESSION 6

22.1.2005 (1000 Hrs)

CHANGING DIMENSIONS OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SERVICES IN INDIA

 

 

PAPER PRESENTED

by

 

SHAILENDRA KUMAR

Department of Library and Information Science

University of Delhi

India

DYNAMICS OF TELECAST MEDIA LIBRARIES

IN INDIA

Shailendra Kumar

Department of Library and Information Science, University of Delhi.

Ranjeet Singh Thakur

Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Science, University of Delhi.

INTRODUCTION

Ever since the process of economic liberalisation took off in India in early 90s, many private television channels have come up. For the first few years, the telecast media company libraries did not find much of the problems with regards to handle their collections. But as the time passed, it gradually became difficult to manage these libraries in absence of ‘LIS’ qualified professionals and standard ‘LIS’ systems. With the passage of time the problem became more and more acute.

Thus, it was high time to answer the questions like: What is TV media organisations’ perception of a library? How they process their information resources? Up to what level they are able to satisfy their users? What are the systems being followed for information storage and retrieval? Is the manpower engaged in these libraries ‘LIS’ qualified? What are the problems being faced by the TV media libraries and their users? What is the information behaviour of the users of such libraries? and so on.

Television programmes are telecast via Satellite; Terrestrial Links and Cable Networks. The study has focused on all the three types of organisations/ libraries, which are catering to the needs of television programme production houses, news agencies etc.

Programmes produced for television transmission are broadly categorised in three categories as News and Current Affairs; Education and Entertainment. The present study has covered all categories with a slant to news-based programmes.

There are different types of agencies, which are involved directly or indirectly in the process of telecast, which maintain their libraries. These could be Production Houses; Telecast companies or TV Channels; News Agencies and Educational Institutes in the field of Television media.

 

OBJECTIVES

The study aimed at to find out the ---

Growth pattern and general background of telecast media companies vis--vis libraries;

Nature of telecast media libraries in terms of their collection, maintenance, facilities, operations, systems and services rendered by these libraries;

Information behaviour and status of the users of television media libraries;

Relationship between LIS education and TV media libraries;

Willingness for library resource sharing;

Techniques, technologies, systems and equipments being used by libraries which otherwise are not generally used by traditional book libraries;

State and status of television media library personnel; and

Problems and suggestions by the librarians and the users

 

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

For the present study only the satellite channels 185 in numbers with operations in India, are taken into consideration.

More emphasis has been laid on television media libraries dealing with "News and Current Affairs" and "Education" instead of "Entertainment".

Often one group is running many television channels. Such groups have only one library. Hence the number of libraries are not corresponding to the number of TV channels.

 

Data related to TV media Librarians 57 in number and the Users of TV media libraries 113 in numbers has been collected and analysed using Statistical tools

 

TV MEDIA: ORGANSIATIONAL STRUCTURE

As we know that the dawn of early 1990s saw the dawn of commercial television in India. Many television channels, broadcasters, television software (programmes) production houses have mushroomed up during the last 13 years. To help the video industry in India, many allied services have also come up to help the television media, directly or indirectly, such as advertising agencies, television news agencies, advertisers, audiences, rating agencies etc.

Craft et.al. have in their book drawn the relationship amongst the various components of the television video industry as shown in the Fig. 1. Now, the organizational structure of a television software producers or broadcasters may vary from company to company. However, ideally speaking a television broadcast station has a following type of organizational structure as depicted in the Fig. 2.

 

Fig. 1: Components of the Commercial Video Industry

Information flow Money flow

Fig. 2 : Organisational Chart for a Broadcast Television Station

 

ANALYSIS

Media Library Users

Selection and Size

As regards to the Users’ questionnaire, questionnaires were distributed personally and by post. A total of 215 (10 % of the total population of 2154) questionnaires were distributed.

Despite all limitations and hard persuasion 113 questionnaires were received which comes to 52.6 percent.

A city wise and organisation wise break-up of the users respondents is as follows:

City wise Break-up of the Users Respondents

The Table 1 gives a detail of city wise distribution of the users responded.

Table 1

City wise Distribution of the Respondents

Sr. No.

City/ Area

No. of Users

1

Ahmedabad

3

2

Bangalore

1

3

Chennai

2

4

Delhi

46

5

Hyderabad

3

6

Jaipur

5

7

Noida

48

8

Udaipur

5

Total

113

 

 

 

Fig 3: Main Thrust of the Respondents Organsiations

Purpose of Using In-house Library and Other LICs

While replying to the question as to what motivates them or what is/ are the ‘Purpose/s’ of using In-house and or Other LIC. It is observed that In-house LIC is mostly (by 89 respondents) used to perform ‘Official Work’. Next to that, 74 respondents use In-house LIC for Casual Reading, 69 for Research and 67 for Information purposes. Education is the least motivational factor to use an In-house LICs reveals Fig. 4

It seems that those working in the television media do not believe much in using other LICs. They rarely use (only 12 of 113 respondents) an outside library. So far as motivational factors for using an outside LIC are concerned, Table 2 shows a sharp contrast as compared to the In-house LICs. ‘Official Work’ is the least motivation and ‘Information’ is the highest motivational factor to use an out side LIC.

 

Table 2

Purpose of Using LICs

Purpose

In-house LIC

Other LIC

Casual Reading

74

(65.5)

9

(8)

Education

57

(50.4)

11

(9.7)

Official Work

89

(78.8)

2

(1.8)

Research

69

(61.1)

10

(8.8)

Information

67

(59.3)

12

(10.6)

 

 

 

Fig. 4: Classification of Respondents by Purpose

of Using In-house and Other LICs

 

Usefulness of LIS Qualification for TV Media Librarians

Cluster analysis reveals that 92.2 % of the respondents find, qualification in Library and Information Science, either ‘Very Useful’ or ‘Useful’ in discharging the duties as television media librarian. Only 7.8 % of the population falls in the category of ‘Less Useful’ or ‘Useless’. However, 10 users did not respond to the question as shown in the Fig. 5

 

Fig. 5: Usefulness of LIS Qualification for TV Media Librarians

It is found that only 1/3rd of the TV media librarians are LIS qualified. However, most of the users say that their librarian is qualified and trained enough to cope up with requirements of television media libraries. Most users feel that LIS qualification is either "Very Useful" or "Useful". Whereas very few believe that LIS qualification is either "Less Useful" or "Useless".

 

Training Options for a Television Media Librarian

An unending debate is going on whether a Television Media Librarian should be trained in Library and Information Science (LIS), Television Media (TV Media), Information Technology (IT), any combination of the three or any thing else. The survey divulges that 54 of the respondents (48.2%) are of the opinion that to become a successful television media librarian, it is must to train him in a combination of LIS, TVM and IT, depicts Fig. 6. After analyzing, it is found that only 15 respondents (13.4%) feel that qualification in LIS is not at all a must to become a successful television media librarian. Those who advocate for LIS and those who are against LIS qualification for telecast media librarian, the ratio is 6.5:1 (97:15).

Fig. 6: Training of TV Media Librarians

Type of Information Material

Rank

Newspapers

1

Journals/ Magazines

2

Books

3

Reference Books

4

Videotapes

5

Press Clippings

6

Audiotapes

7

Reports

8

Video CDs/ DVDs

9

Programme Scripts

10

Product Catalogues/ Brochures

11

Audio CDs/ DVDs

12

Still Photographs

13

 

Rank list of Usefulness of LIC Information Materials

Table 3: Rank List of usefulness of LIC Information Materials

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3 shows Newspapers are the most useful library material available in the telecast media libraries. Journals and magazines are the second most important followed by books. Still photographs are the least important library material.

 

 

Library Professionals

Selection and Size

As regards to the Heads of television media libraries’ questionnaire, 81 questionnaires were distributed, personally in Delhi and Noida and by post in rest of the places, to the Television Media Organisations with a LIC facility. Out of which 57 responded which comes to 70.4%. Appendix-IV lists these organisations. There are 185 channels/ production houses/ cable operators and television media educational institutions, questionnaires were sent to 81 of such organisations because of the following reasons:

Many media organisations have more then one television channels but number of libraries is limited to one or two only. For example, Aaj Tak and Headlines Today channels belong to one group i.e. TV Today and have only one library.

There are some channels, which started after the survey. For example Jagaran and India TV.

 

 

Classification by Category

Table 4 ranks lists the television media organisations on the basis of their nature. It is clear from the table that most of the respondents fall under the category of "Broadcasters" followed by "Production Houses". The Doordarshan, however, preferred to categories itself as "Visual Achieve" which has been put in the category of "Others".

 

Table 4

Rank list by Type of Organisation

Type of Organisations

Number of Organisations

Rank

Broadcasters

32

1

Production Houses

21

2

News Agencies

10

3

Educational Media Centres

4

4

Multi System Operators

2

5

Others

1

6

It is observed that many respondents fall in more then one category. For example a Broadcaster or an Educational Media Centre may be a Production House also. The Fig.7 graphically classifies the respondents organisations by their nature.

 

Fig. 7: Classification of Media Organisations by Nature

 

Distribution by Year-of-Start of the Media Organisation

Most of the Indian television channels were started when the Government of India’s new policy of globalisation and liberalisation started in early 1990s. This is clearly evident from the Fig. 8 that most of them started after 1990. The category ‘Before 1990’ contains the television media organisation which are either government organisations like Doordarshan, News Agencies like United News of India, Press Trust of India which were earlier dealing only in ‘print media’, Educational Media Centres like Indian Institute of Mass Communication and Foreign News Agencies like Australian Broadcasting Corporation etc. The Table 5 categorises the year-of-start wise distribution of television media organisation.

 

Table 5

Distribution by Year-of-Start of the Media Organisation

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Before 1990

14

24.6

25

25

1990-1992

4

7

7.1

32.1

1993-1995

19

33.3

33.9

66.1

1996-1998

9

15.8

16.1

82.1

1999-2001

5

8.8

8.9

91.1

After 2001

5

8.8

8.9

100

Total

56

98.2

100

Missing Not Responded

1

1.8

Total

57

100

 

Fig. 8: Distribution by Year-of-Start of the Media Organisation

 

 

It is indicated in the Fig. 8 that the years 1993, 1994 and 1995 saw many television media organisations mushrooming in India.

 

Personnel in Telecast Media LICs

Number of Staff Members

Table 6 shows the distribution by number of staff members in telecast media libraries. It is seen from the table that one such LIC has 15 staff members, which is the maximum number. This is followed by another two LICs with 10 staff members in its band.

One fact to be looked into is that 17 LICs are working as one-man show. That means one staff member is running the entire LIC operations only. However, on an average there are 3.5 (195/56) staff members working in a telecast media LIC in India shows an analysis of the table. One of the organisations did not respond.

 

Table 6

Distribution by Number of Staff Members

  No. of Staff

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

1

17

29.8

30.4

30.4

2

8

14

14.3

44.6

3

10

17.5

17.9

62.5

4

7

12.3

12.5

75

5

4

7

7.1

82.1

6

3

5.3

5.4

87.5

7

1

1.8

1.8

89.3

8

3

5.3

5.4

94.6

10

2

3.5

3.6

98.2

15

1

1.8

1.8

100

Total

56

98.2

100

Missing NR*

1

1.8

Total

57

100

*NR - Not Responded

 

Fig. 9 shows a pattern where the number of LICs is high the number of staff is low whereas in the cases where the staff number is high the number of LICs is low.

Fig. 9: Strength of Staff in LICs

 

Information Resources

Quantum of Collection

Nature of collection is quite different in television media library from a book library. This is proved from the Table 7 where "Programme Scripts" is the most on hand type of documents in telecast media LIC. Programme Scripts are followed by, as expected, "Videotapes" as rank number 2, "Books" as number 3 and "Press Clippings" as number 4.

A cluster analysis of the table shows that "Programme Scripts" and "Videotapes" form the major Collection in a television media library.

The table also shows that most of the LICs (11 out of 19) get Programme Scripts, which are produced in-house. Only 8 LICs purchase Programme Scripts. In case of Videotapes, 24 LICs receive Videotapes, which are produced in-house.

 

Table 7

Rank list of Type of Collection

 

Number of LICs

 

Purchase/ Subscribe

In-house Production

Gratis

Total

Average

Rank

Books

23

1

7

34290

1491

3

Reference Books

18

1

2

2540

141

8

Journals/ Magazines

28

3

6

2381

85

9

Newspapers

27

0

1

1133

42

11

Videotapes

34

24

6

398700

11726

2

Audiotapes

20

10

5

6327

316

7

Video CDs/DVDs

26

15

3

11720

451

5

Audio CDs/DVDs

17

10

5

5782

340

6

Product Catalogues

4

0

6

1

0

 
Still Pictures

8

4

0

400

50

10

Press Clippings

18

5

2

8600

478

4

Programme Scripts

8

11

0

101810

12726

1

 

Information Processing

Technical Processing

Table 8 numbers the LICs processing their LIC collections of print and non-print documents. It is evident from the table that technical processing is done more for non-print material rather then print materials. Among the non-print collections, "Classification" is done by most of the LICs followed by "Subject Headings". "Indexing" is done in less LICs. For print materials "Classification", "Subject Headings" and "Indexing" is done by equal number of LICs. This is followed by "Cataloguing" which is being done in 9 LICs as shown in the Fig.10.

Table 8

Technical Processing of Documents

  Print Material Non-print Material
Classification

11

37

Cataloguing

9

25

Subject Heading

11

33

Indexing

11

22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 10: Technical Processing of Documents

 

 

Most of the telecast media LICs in India do not follow the standards codes practiced in the field of Library and Information Science for processing their collections – print or non-print. This was one of the important hypotheses set for this study. Table 9 and Fig. 11 declare that for technical processing – classification, cataloguing, subject heading, and indexing, telecast media LICs in India depend on their own systems developed in-house. For ‘Classification’, out of 41 respondents, 36 (87.8%) respondents use system of classification ‘developed in-house’. DDC and UDC systems are used by 2 each respondents. Only 1 respondent uses CC.

For ‘cataloguing’, 23 of the 28 (82.1%) respondents use ‘developed in-house’ system of cataloguing. 5 respondents use AACR II. CCC is not at all used in any of the respondents LICs.

So far, ‘subject heading’ is concerned 33 out of 36 (91.7%) respondents believe on ‘developed in-house’ system of subject heading. Sears List of Subject Headings and LC List of Subject Headings follow this with 2 and 1 respondent respectively.

 

 

Table 9

Systems of Information Processing

 

Systems*

Classification

Cataloguing

Subject Headings

DDC

2

   
CC

1

   
UDC

2

   
In-house

36

   
AACR II  

5

 
CCC  

0

 
In-house  

23

 
Sears    

2

LC    

1

Any Thesaurus    

0

In-house    

33

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Systems*

DDC – Dewey Decimal Classification

CC – Colon Classification

UDC – Universal Decimal Classification

AACR II – Anglo American Cataloguing Rules II

CCC – Classified Catalogue Code

LC – Library of Congress List of Subject Headings

Fig. 11: Systems of Technical Processing

 

 

 

 

Use of Library Softwares

As expected most of the telecast media LICs in India use computers for their LIC operations shows Fig. 12.

Fig. 12: Use of Computer in LIC Operations

Fig. 13: Software Used by the Telecast Media LICs

Table 10 and Fig.13 depict that 80.4 percent of the telecast media LICs in India use computer software developed in-house. Next to that are CDS/ISIS and Alice for Windows used by 2 respondents each and Libsys used by one respondent. In the category of ‘Other Packages’, the 4 respondents have listed the names of ‘Packages’. These are:

Q Series Client

Medlib

Lightworks Assistant

Amiga

Table 10

Software Package Used by LICs

Freq-uency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Alice for Windows

2

3.5

4.3

4.3

CDS/ISIS

2

3.5

4.3

8.7

Libsys

1

1.8

2.2

10.9

Any Other

4

7

8.7

19.6

Developed In-house

37

64.9

80.4

100

Total

46

80.7

100

Missing

Not Responded

11

19.3

Total

57

100

 

 

List of Software Developed In-house

LICs using in-house software package were requested to name the package being used by them. Some of the respondents have given names of the software they are using. These are:

Library Management System

BPSIRS

Library Information System

DD Archive

Tape Library Management Software

SAMBA

Video Library Tape Management System

Newgen

LMS

 

Media/ IT Educated LIC Personnel

The survey showed that many LICs in study are equipped with their staff members having qualification in Television Journalism, Print Journalism, and Information Technology. Some of them have revealed their qualification as shown in the Table 11

Table 11

Qualification of LIC Staff in TV Media/ Information Technology

 

Table 5.32

 

Sr.

Degree/ Diploma

No. of

Personnel

Qualification

in*

1

Certificate in DTP

1

IT

2

Certificate in TV Journalism

2

TVJ

3

Degree in Mass Communication

3

TVJ

4

Diploma in TV Journalism

1

TVJ

5

MA in Journalism

1

TVJ

6

MA in Mass Communication

1

PJ

7

PG Diploma in JMC

2

PJ

8

PG Diploma in Mass Communication

1

TVJ

9

Pre-production+

1

TVJ

10

Information Technology+

1

IT

11

TV Journalism+

1

TVJ

* IT – Information Technology, TVJ – Television Journalism PJ – Print Journalism

+ - Degree/ Diploma not revealed

 

 

Preference for LIS Qualification

In order to weigh the preference for LIS qualification amongst the working Library Heads of telecast media LICs, they were requested to tell their preference for LIS qualification compared to Television Media, Information Technology, or any combination of the three. Table 12 shows that most respondents 19 of 57 prefer to have a combination of qualification in TV Media, LIS and Information Technology. From the Table 12 and Fig. 14, this can be concluded that out of 57 respondents only 13 do not prefer LIS at all to be a successful television media librarian whereas 44 prefer LIS qualification either independently or with some other qualification in TV media or Information Technology.

 

Table 12

 

Opinion for Qualification of a Television Media Librarian

Qualification

No.*

Television Media

3

Library and Information Science

6

Information Technology

1

Television Media and Library and Information Science

17

Library and Information Science and Information Technology

2

Television Media and Information Technology

9

Television Media, LIS and Information Technology

19

Total

57

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

No.* - Number of Respondents

LIS – Library and Information Science, TV Media – Television Media

IT – Information Technology

Fig. 14: Preference of Qualification of TV Media Librarian

 

Most of the library respondents use their "In-house Developed" systems for information processing and library automation.

Most of the libraries responded that they do not have any provisions for in-service training and short-term courses.

It is also found that television media libraries work for longer hours. The libraries of 24 hours news channels are working round the clock. Educational Media Centre libraries are working normal office hours. Major production houses’ libraries work for 10 to 12 hours.

Large number of the respondents do not intend to share their library resources with others

.

TV media libraries dominate non-print materials is disproved in the study.

OBSERVATIONS

It was observed that the organisations dealing in News and or Education have a good library and staff. On the other hand organizations dealing in Entertainment including religious and cultural channels are not having a good library and library staff.

Similarly, Broadcasters, Educational Media Centres, News Agencies are having a good libraries and qualified staff whereas Cable Operators, Multi System Operators, and small Production Houses neither have a good library nor qualified staff. They just have made very ad-hoc arrangements.

It was observed that practicing librarian of television media desperately looking for some standard software designed and developed to cater to the needs of television media libraries.

The library and information services rendered by the television media libraries are not up to the mark in many libraries. This is probably because they are not oriented and trained like that.

Personal interview with the librarian respondents, it was observed that there are no clear-cut wage policies in most of the libraries in question. Some of the libraries told that "it all depends on your personal equations with the seniors and the boss".

It was also observed that most of the staff members who are not trained in LIS want to shift to some other department.

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chach, Maryann. Television librarians – prospects for jobs. Film Library Quarterly. 1983: 16(3): 3-7.

Chepesiuk, Ron. The electronic news library: an online revolution takes shape. American Libraries. 1996: 49.

Craft, John E. et al. Electronic Media Singapore: Thomson Learning, 2001,p.184.

Green, E. L. and Klasen, L. Indexing and information retrieval of moving images – experiences from a large television information database. In: Raitt, David I. and Jeapes, Ben., Ed. Proceedings of the 17th International online information meeting, London, 7-9 December 1993. Oxford and New Jersey: Learned Information (Europe) Ltd., 1993. p. 129-36.

Gulati, R. R. Composite satellite and cable television. New Delhi: New Age International; 2000. p. 307.

Hartnoll, Gillian. The second ‘Film and television archival cataloguing and documentation conference’ American Film Institute, Washington DC, November 1981. Audiovisual Librarian. 1982; 8(2): 75-77.

Kwan, Frank. Television, research and libraries. Journal of Education Media and Library Sciences. 1986; 23(2): 139-144.

Lesk, Michael. Television libraries for workstations: an all – digital storage, transmission and display system for low – rate video. In: Feeney, Mary and Day, Shirley., Ed. Proceedings of the Second International Information Research Conference held at Churchill College, Cambridge, UK, 15-18 July 1991.

MacDonald, Barrie. Managing for change: the Independent Television Commission Library. Aslib Information. 1991; 19(3): 89-90.

Stoker, David. The coming age of media librarianship in the United Kingdom. Journal of Librarianship and Information Science. 1991; 23(4): 173-175.

Turner, James M. Training for audiovisual archivists and librarians. IFLA Journal. 1991; 17(3): 248.

Widzinski, Lori. The evolution of media librarianship: a tangled history of change and constancy. [Cited February 2002]. Available from: URL: http://www.utpjournals.com/simile

Yee, Martha M. The concept of work for moving image materials. Cataloguing and Classification Quarterly. 1993; 18(2): 33-40.